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  • Regarding the annual update of UN38.3 report and regulatory requirements
    Regarding the annual update of UN38.3 report and regulatory requirements

    UN38.3 refers to paragraph 38.3 of the "United Nations Manual of Tests and Standards for the Transport of Dangerous Goods" specially formulated by the United Nations for the transportation of dangerous goods. The safe transportation of lithium batteries must have a test report that meets the requirements of UN38.3 and a certificate.  The cargo transportation condition appraisal report that complies with the new version of DGR and IMDG rules requires that lithium batteries must pass a high degree of simulation, high and low temperature cycle, vibration test, impact test, 55℃ external short circuit, impact test, overcharge test, compulsory The discharge test can ensure the safety of lithium battery transportation. If necessary, the packages for the lithium battery transported separately and with the equipment also need to pass the 1.2m drop test, and the packaging meets the requirements of the regulations before they can be transported.

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  • Lithium ion battery (LIB) has been used as energy storage devices for portable electronics since 1990 years.
    Lithium ion battery (LIB) has been used as energy storage devices for portable electronics since 1990 years.

    Lithium ion battery (LIB) has been used as energy storage devices for portable electronics since 1990 years. Recently, these are well noted as the power sources for the vehicles such as electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. Both layered type LiCoO2, LiNiO2 and spinel type LiMn2O4 is the most important cathode materials because of their high operating voltage at 4 V (Mizushima,, 1980, Guyomard,, 1994). So far, LiCoO2 has been mostly used as cathode material of commercial LIB. However, LiCoO2 and LiNiO2 have a problem related to capacity fading due to the instability in rechargeable process. Cobalt is also expensive and its resource is not sufficient. Therefore, LiCoO2 cathode material is not suitable as a LIB for EV and HEV. On the other hand, LiMn2O4 is regarded as a promising cathode material for large type LIB due to their advantages such as low cost, non-toxicity and thermally stability (Pegeng,, 2006). It was also known that Ni-substitute type LiMn2O4 (LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4) was exhibited rechargeable behavior at about 5 V (Markovsky,, 2004, Idemoto,, 2004, Park,, 2004). LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 has been considerably noticed as a cathode material with high power density which had an active potential at 5 V. The layered type LiCo1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3O2 was found to exhibit superior high potential cathode properties. This had rechargeable capacity with more than 150 mAh/g at higher rate and a milder thermal stability, but shows significantly capacity fading during the long rechargeable process. Recently, olivine type phosphate compound is noted as an alternative cathode material. LiFePO4 and LiMnPO4 were expected as next generation materials for large LIB because of low-cost, environmentally friendly, high thermally stability and electrochemical performance. On the other hand, the oxide type anode such as spinel type Li4Ti5O12 is expected as the candidate for the replacement of carbon anodes because of better safety. LIB which is consisted of LiFePO4 cathode and Li4Ti5O12 anode offers to high safety and long life cycle. Therefore, it is expected as the application of HEV or power supply for load levelling in wind power generation and solar power generation. So far, we have been developed spray pyrolysis technique as a aerosol process to prepare LiFePO4 and Li4Ti5O12 powders for LIB. In this chapter, the powder processing and electrochemical properties of LiFePO4 cathode and Li4Ti5O12 anode materials by spray pyrolysis were described. Spray pyrolysis is a versatile process regarding the powder synthesis of inorganic and metal materials (Messing,, 1993, Dubois,, 1989, Pluym,, 1993). An atomizer such as ultrasonic (Ishizawa,, 1985) or two-fluid nozzle (Roy,, 1977) is often used to generate the mist. The mist is droplet in which the inorganic salts or metal organic compound is dissolved in water or organic solvent. The droplets were dried and pyrolyzed to form oxide or metal powders at elevated tem...

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  • Synthesis of nanostructured materials with biological agents
    Synthesis of nanostructured materials with biological agents

    The latest trend in battery materials processing is using biomineralization process in order to build controlled nanoarchitectured compounds under ambient conditions [Ryu, J. et al. (2010)]. Biomimetic chemistry involves the utilization of actual biomolecular entities such as proteins, bacteria and viruses to act either as a growth medium or as a spatially constrained nanoscale reactor for the generation of nanoparticles. Biosystems have the inherent capabilities of molecular recognition and self-assembly, and thus are an attractive template for constructing and organizing the nanostructure. Ryu et al. synthesized nanostructured transition metal phosphate via biomimetic mineralization of peptide nanofibers (figure 11). Peptides self-assembled into nanofibers displaying numerous acidic and polar moieties on their surface and readily mineralized with transition metal phosphate by sequential treatment with aqueous solutions containing transition metal cations and phosphate anions. FePO4-mineralized peptide nanofibers were thermally treated at 350º C to fabricate FePO4 nanotubes with inner walls coated with a thin layer of conductive carbon by carbonization of the peptide core. As formed carbon coated FePO4 nanotubes showed high reversible capacity (150 mAh·g-1 at C/17) and good capacity retention during cycling. Schematic of FePO4 nanotubes synthesis by heat treatment of peptide/FePO4 hybrid nanofibers; and b) transmission micrograph of tubular structures. [Reproduced from Ryu et al. (2010)]. Bacillus pasteurii bacterium has been extensively used to provoke calcite precipitation and it can generate a basic medium from urea hydrolysis that helps growing of LiFePO4 nanofilaments at 65º C. Beer yeast has also been reported as a biomimetic template that has been used to prepare LiFePO4 with enhanced surface area and conductivity [Li, P. et al. (2009)]. Engineered viruses have also been reported as templates to synthesize various electrode materials [Mao, Y. et al. (2007)], such as gold-cobalt oxide nanowires that consisted on 2-3 nm diameter nanocrystals prepared with modified bacteria M13 virus, with enhanced capacity retention [Tam, K.T. et al. (2006)]. Tobacco mosaic virus has also been used as a template for the synthesis of nickel and cobalt surfaces. This virus was genetically engineered to express a novel coat protein cysteine residue, and to vertically pattern virus particles into gold surfaces via gold-thiol interactions. Gold-supported vertically aligned virion particles served as vertical templates for reductive deposition of Ni and Co at room temperature via electroless deposition, and thus produced high surface area electrodes [Royston, E. et al. (2008)].

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  • Synthesis of nanostructured materials by ionothermal process
    Synthesis of nanostructured materials by ionothermal process

    New synthetic methods derived from solvothermal approach, such as ionothermal processes have been used to obtain nanopowders of LiMPO4 (M= Mn, Co and Ni), LixMSiO4 [Nytén, A. et al. (2005)] and Li and Na fluorophosphates battery materials [DiSalvo, F.J. et al. (1971); Ellis, B.L. et al. (2007b)] using low heating temperature. Ionothermal synthesis has emerged when a great amount of research work is aimed at new low-cost processes to make highly electrochemically optimized electrode materials. This alternative route is considered as a new low cost synthesis process because it demands much less energy than high temperature ceramic routes. In spite of the higher cost of ionic liquids compared to water, it has been proved that these solvents can be reused without purification when used to prepare the same material, what leads to a significant cost decrease and minimizes waste production [Tarascon, J-M. et al. (2010)]. Ionothermal synthesis has also been carried out successfully by using microwave rather than traditional heating, which reduces reaction time and required energy for the synthesis. Ionothermal synthesis is based on the use of an ionic liquid as reacting medium instead of water in solvothermal conditions. Ionic liquids are a class of organic solvents with high polarity and a preorganized solvent structure [Del Popolo, M. G. and Voth, G. A. (2004)]. Room temperature (or near-room-temperature) ionic liquids are classically defined as liquids at ambient temperatures (or <100 °C) that are made of organic cations and anions. They have excellent solvating properties, little measurable vapor pressure, and high thermal stability. Solvating properties and fusion temperatures will depend on the combination of cations and anions chosen. In the area of materials science, there have been several reports of ionic liquids being used as solvents with very little or controlled amounts of water involved in the synthesis [Antonietti, M et al. (2004)]. Most of these studies concentrated on amorphous materials and nanomaterials. Like water, ionic liquids resulting from compatible cationic/anionic pairs have excellent solvent properties. In addition, they possess high thermal stability and negligible volatility so the use of autoclave is not mandatory. Moreover, because of the flexible nature of the cationic/anionic pairs, they present, as solvents, great opportunities to purposely direct nucleation. Over the past decade, ionothermal synthesis has developed into an advantageous synthetic technique for the preparation of zeotypes [Lin, Z-J. et al. (2008)] and other porous materials such as metal organic framework compounds (MOFs), but there has been very limited use made of this technique in the synthesis of inorganic compounds. The unique feature of ionothermal synthesis is that the ionic liquid acts as both the solvent ...

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  • the classical synthesis methods used to prepare electrode materials for Li-ion batteries
    the classical synthesis methods used to prepare electrode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Classical synthesis methods can be classified in solid reactions and solution methods,according to the precursors used (Figure 2). Ceramic process is the simplest and most traditional synthesis method because of its easy procedure and easy scale-up. It consists on manual grinding of the reactants and their subsequent heating in air, oxidative, reducing or inert atmosphere, depending on the targeted compound. The great disadvantage of this method is the need for high calcination temperatures, from 700 to 1500º C, which provokes the growth and sinterization of the crystals, leading to micrometer-sized particles (>1 m) [Eom, J. et al. (2008); Cho, Y. & Cho, J. (2010); Mi, C.H. et al. (2005); Yamada, A. et al. (2001)]. The macroscopic dimensions of as synthesized particles leads to limited kinetics of Li insertion/extraction and makes difficult the proper carbon coating of phosphate particles [Song, H-K. et al. (2010)]. For this reason it was necessary to add carbon during or after the grinding process, which implies the use of an extra grinding step [Liao, X.Z. et al. (2005); Zhang, S.S. et al. (2005); Nakamura, T. et al. (2006); Mi, C.H. et al. (2005)]. Mechanochemical activation can be considered as a variant of the ceramic method, but the final calcination temperature is lower, of about 600º C [Kwon,S.J. et al. (2004); Kim, C.W. et al. (2005); Kim, J-K. et al. (2007)]. This way, grain size is slightly lower due to mechanical milling. Fig. 2. Schematic of the classical synthesis methods used to prepare electrode materials for Li-ion batteries. Hand-milled precursors can also be activated by microwave radiation [Song, M-S. et al. (2007)]. If at least one of the reactants is microwave sensitive, the mixture can get sufficiently high temperatures so as to achieve the reaction and obtain the targeted compound in very short heating times, between 2 and 20 minutes. This factor makes this synthesis method an economic way to obtain desired phases. Sometimes, when a carbonaceous composite is desired, active carbon can be used to absorb microwave radiation and to heat the sample [Park, K.S. et al. (2003)]. Organic additives such as sucrose [Li, W. et al. (2007)], glucose [Beninati, S. et al. (2008)] or citric acid [Wang, L. et al. (2007)] can be used in the initial mixture in order to get in situ carbon formation. Oxide-type impurity generation is not usually indicated in literature, but, sometimes, the reaction atmosphere is so reducing that iron carbide (Fe7C3) or iron phosphide (Fe2P) are generated as secondary phases [Song, M-S. et al (2008)]. Particle size of phosphates obtained by this synthesis method ranges between 1 and 2 m, but two effects have been reported with regard to this parameter. The growth of particles was correlated with the increase of microwave exposure times. However, in the presence of great...

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